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Kenan S, Python Developer

Last Updated: 4 Jul 2023

- 6+ years of experience as a Python Developer - Upper-Intermediate English - Available ASAP

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JSON Web Token (JWT)

JSON Web Token (JWT)


Django   5 yr.


Flask   4 yr.


Node.js   1 yr.

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Alexandr A., Java Software Engineer

Last Updated: 4 Jul 2023

- 4+ years of experience in the IT industry as a Java Software Engineer - Upper-Intermediate English - Available ASAP

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JSON Web Token (JWT)

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Yevhenii K., Front-end Developer

Last Updated: 5 Sep 2023

- Self-motivated and result-driven front-end developer with 5+ years of experience - Skilled in Angular and JavaScript, with extensive experience in their development and ecosystem - Strong ability to write clean code, debug performance issues, and implement features based on client and user needs - Possesses good logical thinking and a high level of responsibility - Excellent attention to detail and ability to work well in a team - Proficient in various programming languages and technologies such as JavaScript, TypeScript, HTML, CSS, SASS, Angular 2+, npm, Webpack, Redux, Rest API, RWD, Figma, Bootstrap, rxJS, docker, ionic, firebase, and JWT - Experienced in working with databases like MongoDB and MySQL, and familiar with source controls like GIT and tracking systems like Jira and Trello. - Intermediate English - Availability starting from ASAP

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JSON Web Token (JWT)

JSON Web Token (JWT)



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Mykyta K., Full-stack Software Engineer (React + Node.js)

Lviv, Ukraine
Last Updated: 4 Jul 2023

- 5+ years of professional experience using front-end and back-end technologies - Front-end: Deep knowledge of native JavaScript (basics, OOP, DOM, events, asynchrony, AJAX, event loop), ES6+, React, Redux, other React tools (React-router, Redux-Saga, etc.), HTML5, CSS3, LESS, SASS, Bootstrap, Material-UI. - Back-end: Node.js, Express.js, NestJS, JWT, REST API, GraphQL, Postgres, Sequelize, Typeorm, knex.js, Docker, Microservices. - Upper-Intermediate English - Available in 2 weeks after approval for the project

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JSON Web Token (JWT)

JSON Web Token (JWT)





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Volodymyr A., Senior PHP Developer

Kharkiv, Ukraine
Last Updated: 18 Sep 2023

- Backend developer with 5 years of practical experience in software development. - Experienced in working with live projects based on various frameworks and CMS such as Laravel, Adapt-Framework, Symfony, WordPress, and Slim. - Proficient in programming languages including PHP, JavaScript, Node.js, Next.js, Vue.js, and Angular.js. - Familiar with technologies such as Xdebug, PSR, API, REST, AWS, HTML, CSS, XML, AJAX, JSON, OAuth, SOAP, SOLID, and DRY. - Skilled in using development environments and tools like PhpStorm, WebStorm, PyCharm, and Visual Studio. - Knowledgeable in source control systems like GIT and Mercurial. - Experienced in Agile, Scrum, and Waterfall methodologies and has a clear understanding of the full development life cycle and testing processes.

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JSON Web Token (JWT)

JSON Web Token (JWT)


PHP   5 yr.



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Upstaff Managers conduct an introductory round with potential candidates to assess their soft skills. Additionally, the talent’s hard skills are evaluated through testing or verification by a qualified developer during a technical interview. The Upstaff Staffing Platform stores data on past and present JSON Web Token (JWT) candidates. Upstaff managers also assess talent and facilitate rapid work and scalability, offering clients valuable insights into their talent pipeline. Additionally, we have a matching system within the platform that operates in real-time, facilitating efficient pairing of candidates with suitable positions.

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Table of Contents

Let’s consider Difference between Junior, Middle, Senior, Expert/Team Lead developer roles.

Seniority NameYears of experienceResponsibilities and activitiesAverage salary (USD/year)
Junior Developer0-2 yearsAssisting in the development of software applications, debugging and fixing basic issues, learning and implementing coding best practices, following instructions from more experienced team members, participating in code reviews, and collaborating with the team.45,000 – 70,000
Middle Developer2-5 yearsDesigning and implementing software components, participating in architectural discussions, writing clean and efficient code, collaborating with cross-functional teams, mentoring junior developers, performing code reviews, and contributing to the overall improvement of the development process.70,000 – 90,000
Senior Developer5-8 yearsLeading complex software development projects, designing scalable and maintainable systems, providing technical guidance and mentoring to the team, resolving technical challenges, conducting code refactoring and optimization, collaborating with stakeholders, and ensuring high-quality code delivery.90,000 – 120,000
Expert/Team Lead8+ yearsLeading development teams, defining technical strategies and roadmaps, conducting performance evaluations, overseeing project timelines and deliverables, coordinating with other departments, providing technical expertise and guidance, driving innovation and process improvements, and ensuring the successful execution of complex projects.120,000 – 180,000+

TOP 11 Facts about JSON Web Token (JWT)

  • JSON Web Token (JWT) is an open standard (RFC 7519) that defines a compact and self-contained way for securely transmitting information between parties as a JSON object.
  • JWTs are commonly used for authentication and authorization purposes in web applications and APIs, providing a stateless and scalable solution.
  • JWTs consist of three parts: a header, a payload, and a signature. The header contains information about the type of token and the cryptographic algorithms used, while the payload contains the claims or statements about the user or entity. The signature is used to verify the integrity of the token.
  • JWTs are typically signed using a secret key or a public/private key pair. This allows the recipient to verify the authenticity of the token and ensure that it has not been tampered with.
  • JWTs are designed to be compact, making them suitable for transmitting data over HTTP headers or URL parameters. They are also URL-safe and can be easily parsed by different programming languages.
  • JWTs are stateless, meaning that the server does not need to store any session information. This makes JWTs scalable and reduces the need for database queries or session storage.
  • JWTs are widely supported by popular programming languages and frameworks, including Java, Python, Node.js, Ruby, and PHP. There are also many libraries and tools available for generating, parsing, and validating JWTs.
  • JWTs can include custom claims, allowing developers to add additional information to the token as needed. This flexibility makes JWTs suitable for various use cases, such as role-based access control, single sign-on, and secure token exchange.
  • JWTs have built-in expiration and not-before timestamps, allowing the server to control the lifespan of the token. This helps mitigate the risk of token misuse and unauthorized access.
  • JWTs can be securely transmitted over HTTPS, providing end-to-end encryption and protecting the confidentiality of the token contents.
  • JWTs are widely adopted by major industry players, including Google, Microsoft, Facebook, and many others. They are also recommended by OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect as a secure alternative to traditional session-based authentication.

How and where is JSON Web Token (JWT) used?

Case NameCase Description
User AuthenticationJWT is commonly used for user authentication in web applications. When a user logs in, the server generates a JWT and sends it back to the client. The client includes the JWT in subsequent requests to authenticate itself. This eliminates the need for the server to store session state and improves scalability.
Single Sign-On (SSO)JWT can be used for implementing Single Sign-On across multiple applications. When a user logs in to one application, the server generates a JWT that can be used to authenticate the user across other applications without the need for additional login prompts. This simplifies the user experience and enhances security.
Authorization and Access ControlJWT can carry custom claims or permissions that define the user’s authorization level or access rights. By decoding the JWT, applications can easily determine whether a user has the necessary privileges to perform certain actions or access specific resources.
Secure Data ExchangeJWTs can be used to securely exchange data between different parties. The data payload of a JWT can be encrypted, ensuring that only authorized parties can access and decrypt the information. This is particularly useful when transmitting sensitive data over untrusted networks.
Mobile Application DevelopmentJWTs are widely used in mobile applications as a secure and scalable method for user authentication and authorization. They can be easily integrated into mobile app frameworks and provide a lightweight solution for managing user sessions.
Microservices ArchitectureIn a microservices architecture, where applications are broken down into smaller, independent services, JWTs can be used for secure communication and authentication between these services. Each service can validate the JWT to ensure that requests are coming from trusted sources.
Passwordless AuthenticationJWTs can be used to implement passwordless authentication mechanisms. Instead of relying on traditional username and password combinations, a JWT can be generated and sent to the user’s email or mobile device. The user can then present the JWT to authenticate themselves without the need for a password.
Token-based API AuthenticationJWTs are commonly used for authenticating and authorizing API requests. By including the JWT in the request headers, APIs can verify the authenticity of the client and determine whether the client has the necessary permissions to access the requested resources.

TOP 10 JSON Web Token (JWT) Related Technologies

  • Node.js

    Node.js is a popular runtime environment for executing JavaScript code server-side. It provides a robust and efficient platform for building scalable and high-performance applications. With its extensive package ecosystem, developers can easily find libraries and frameworks for implementing JWT authentication.

  • Express.js

    Express.js is a minimalist web application framework for Node.js. It simplifies the process of building web applications by providing a set of flexible and intuitive APIs. Express.js has excellent support for middleware, making it easy to integrate JWT authentication into your application.

  • Python

    Python is a versatile and beginner-friendly programming language widely used in web development. It offers several libraries and frameworks like Flask and Django that provide convenient ways to implement JWT authentication in Python-based applications.

  • JSON Web Token (JWT)

    JWT is an open standard for securely transmitting information between parties as a JSON object. It is widely used for authentication and authorization purposes in web applications. JWTs are compact, self-contained, and can be easily verified by the server, making them an ideal choice for secure data transmission.

  • Spring Boot

    Spring Boot is a Java-based framework that simplifies the development of stand-alone, production-grade Spring applications. It provides built-in support for JWT authentication and authorization through libraries like Spring Security, making it a popular choice for Java developers.

  • Ruby on Rails

    Ruby on Rails is a full-stack web application framework written in Ruby. It emphasizes convention over configuration and follows the “Don’t Repeat Yourself” (DRY) principle. Ruby on Rails has various gems available, such as Devise, which make it easy to implement JWT authentication.

  • React.js

    React.js is a popular JavaScript library for building user interfaces. It allows developers to create reusable UI components and efficiently manage application state. React.js can be combined with libraries like React Router and JSON Web Token libraries to implement JWT authentication in frontend applications.

Pros & cons of JSON Web Token (JWT)

7 Pros of JSON Web Token (JWT)

  • Stateless: JWTs are stateless, meaning that the server does not need to store any session information. This allows for better scalability and performance.
  • Easy to Implement: JWTs are relatively easy to implement and use, with many libraries and frameworks providing support.
  • Security: JWTs can be digitally signed using a secret key or a public/private key pair, ensuring the integrity of the token. This helps prevent unauthorized access and tampering.
  • Compact Size: JWTs are compact in size compared to other token formats. This makes them more efficient for transmission over networks.
  • Flexibility: JWTs can be used for various purposes, including authentication, authorization, and information exchange between parties.
  • Decentralized: JWTs can be used in distributed systems, allowing different services to trust the token issuer and verify the authenticity of the token.
  • Standardized: JWTs follow a well-defined standard, making it easier for different systems and platforms to work together.

7 Cons of JSON Web Token (JWT)

  • Token Size: While JWTs are compact, the token size can still be larger compared to other authentication mechanisms, especially when including additional claims.
  • Increased Payload: Since JWTs are self-contained, they carry all the necessary information within the token. This can result in larger payloads, especially if additional claims are included.
  • Token Expiration: JWTs have an expiration time, which means that they need to be validated and refreshed periodically. This adds complexity to the authentication process.
  • No Centralized Revocation: Once a JWT is issued, it cannot be revoked or invalidated before it expires. If a token needs to be invalidated, the entire token issuance process needs to be modified.
  • Increased Server-Side Processing: Since the server needs to validate and decode the JWTs, it can lead to increased server-side processing, especially in high-load scenarios.
  • Information Leakage: JWTs are self-contained, which means that all the information within the token is readable by anyone who possesses the token. Sensitive information should be encrypted or excluded from the token.
  • Token Management: Managing and securely storing the secret key or public/private key pair used for signing JWTs can be challenging, especially in distributed systems.

What are top JSON Web Token (JWT) instruments and tools?

  • jsonwebtoken: jsonwebtoken is a widely used library for creating and verifying JSON Web Tokens (JWTs) in various programming languages such as JavaScript, Python, Java, and more. It was first released in 2010 and has since become one of the most popular JWT libraries. It provides a simple and intuitive API for generating JWTs and includes features like expiration, not-before dates, and digital signatures.
  • PyJWT: PyJWT is a JSON Web Token implementation for Python. It allows you to encode and decode JWTs, as well as verify their signatures. PyJWT is compatible with Python 2.7, 3.4+, and PyPy, and it has gained significant popularity among Python developers. It provides a high-level API for working with JWTs and supports various algorithms for signing and encrypting tokens.
  • Nimbus JOSE + JWT: Nimbus JOSE + JWT is a Java library that provides a comprehensive set of tools for working with JWTs. It supports JWT creation, validation, parsing, and encryption. Nimbus JOSE + JWT follows the JSON Web Signature (JWS), JSON Web Encryption (JWE), JSON Web Key (JWK), and JSON Web Token (JWT) standards. It has been actively maintained since 2012 and is widely used in Java-based applications.
  • jsonwebtoken.io: jsonwebtoken.io is an online tool that allows you to decode, verify, and generate JWTs. It provides a user-friendly interface for interacting with JWTs without the need for programming knowledge. This tool is particularly useful for quickly inspecting the contents of a JWT and verifying its signature. It also offers code snippets in various programming languages to help developers integrate JWT functionality into their applications.
  • jwt.io: jwt.io is a popular website that provides a range of JWT-related resources. It includes a JWT debugger, which allows you to paste a JWT and inspect its header, payload, and signature. Additionally, jwt.io offers a vast collection of libraries and frameworks for working with JWTs in different programming languages. It serves as a central hub for developers seeking information and tools related to JSON Web Tokens.
  • Firebase Authentication: Firebase Authentication is a comprehensive authentication service provided by Google. It offers built-in support for JWTs as a means of securely identifying and authenticating users. Firebase Authentication handles the generation and verification of JWTs behind the scenes, allowing developers to focus on other aspects of their applications. It supports multiple authentication providers, including email/password, Google, Facebook, and more.

Soft skills of a JSON Web Token (JWT) Developer

Soft skills of a JSON Web Token (JWT) Developer:


  • Clear Communication: Ability to communicate effectively with team members and stakeholders to understand project requirements and provide updates on progress.
  • Problem Solving: Capability to analyze and solve coding issues related to JWT implementation, such as token generation, validation, and error handling.
  • Attention to Detail: Paying close attention to every aspect of JWT implementation to ensure accuracy and security.
  • Collaboration: Working well within a team environment, actively participating in discussions and contributing ideas to improve the JWT implementation process.
  • Time Management: Efficiently managing time and prioritizing tasks to meet project deadlines.


  • Leadership: Taking initiative and guiding junior developers in JWT implementation, providing mentorship and support.
  • Adaptability: Being flexible and open to changes in project requirements or technology updates related to JWT.
  • Code Review: Conducting thorough code reviews to identify any potential vulnerabilities or performance issues in the JWT implementation.
  • Problem Analysis: Analyzing complex problems related to JWT implementation and providing innovative solutions.
  • Documentation: Creating clear and comprehensive documentation for JWT implementation, including guidelines and best practices.
  • Teamwork: Collaborating effectively with cross-functional teams, such as frontend developers, backend developers, and security experts.
  • Continuous Learning: Keeping up-to-date with the latest trends and advancements in JWT technology through self-study and attending relevant conferences or webinars.


  • Project Management: Overseeing the entire JWT implementation process, ensuring timely delivery and meeting client expectations.
  • Technical Leadership: Providing technical guidance and direction to the development team, resolving complex technical issues related to JWT implementation.
  • Quality Assurance: Implementing rigorous testing procedures to ensure the reliability and security of JWT implementation.
  • Mentorship: Mentoring junior and middle-level developers, sharing expertise and knowledge in JWT implementation.
  • Strategic Thinking: Developing long-term plans and strategies for JWT implementation, aligning with the organization’s goals and objectives.
  • Problem Resolution: Resolving conflicts or issues that arise during the JWT implementation process, promoting a positive and productive work environment.
  • Client Management: Building strong relationships with clients, understanding their requirements, and providing effective solutions for JWT implementation.
  • Performance Optimization: Optimizing the performance of JWT implementation, enhancing scalability and efficiency.

Expert/Team Lead

  • Architecture Design: Designing scalable and secure JWT architectures, considering factors such as load balancing, fault tolerance, and high availability.
  • Code Review and Standards: Establishing code review processes and enforcing coding standards for JWT implementation across the development team.
  • Technical Strategy: Defining technical strategies and roadmaps for JWT implementation, aligning with the organization’s overall technical vision.
  • Risk Management: Identifying and mitigating potential risks and vulnerabilities in JWT implementation, ensuring robust security measures.
  • Cross-team Collaboration: Collaborating with other teams, such as DevOps or Security, to ensure smooth integration and deployment of JWT implementation.
  • Performance Tuning: Optimizing the performance of JWT implementation through advanced techniques such as caching, load balancing, and query optimization.
  • Continuous Improvement: Driving continuous improvement initiatives within the development team, exploring new technologies and methodologies for JWT implementation.
  • Thought Leadership: Contributing to the JWT development community by sharing insights, best practices, and innovative approaches through blog posts, presentations, or open-source contributions.
  • Technical Recruitment: Participating in the recruitment process, conducting technical interviews, and assessing candidates’ skills and knowledge in JWT implementation.
  • Stakeholder Management: Managing relationships with key stakeholders, such as project managers, executives, and clients, ensuring effective communication and alignment of expectations.
  • Team Management: Leading and managing a team of developers, providing guidance, mentorship, and performance evaluations for successful JWT implementation.

Cases when JSON Web Token (JWT) does not work

  1. Invalid Signature: One of the common scenarios where JWT does not work is when the signature of the token is invalid. The signature ensures the integrity of the token and verifies that it has not been tampered with. If the signature is not properly validated or if it doesn’t match the expected value, the token will be considered invalid and rejected.
  2. Expired Token: JWTs come with an expiration time, typically defined in the “exp” claim. If the token is used after its expiration time, it will be considered invalid and rejected. This is an important security measure to prevent the misuse of expired tokens.
  3. Revoked Token: In some cases, it may be necessary to revoke a JWT before it expires. This can happen if a user’s access privileges change or if their account is compromised. If a token is revoked, it should no longer be accepted by the server, even if it hasn’t reached its expiration time.
  4. Incorrect Algorithm: JWT allows the use of different algorithms for signing and verifying tokens. If the server and client are not using the same algorithm, the token will not be successfully validated. It is crucial to ensure that both parties agree on the algorithm to be used.
  5. Tampered Payload: The payload of a JWT contains the claims and additional information about the user. If the payload is tampered with, even if the signature is valid, the token will be considered invalid. It is important to protect the integrity of the payload to prevent unauthorized modifications.
  6. Insufficient Key Strength: JWT relies on cryptographic keys for signing and verifying tokens. If the key used is weak or compromised, it can undermine the security of the JWT. It is essential to use strong and secure keys to prevent attacks such as key cracking or brute force.
  7. Incorrect Issuer or Audience: JWT includes the “iss” (issuer) and “aud” (audience) claims to specify who issued the token and who it is intended for. If the server receiving the token does not match the expected issuer or audience, the token will be considered invalid. It is important to validate these claims to ensure the token is used in the intended context.
  8. Missing or Invalid Claims: JWT can include custom claims that provide additional information or context. If a required claim is missing or if the value of a claim is invalid, the token may be rejected. It is crucial to validate all necessary claims to ensure the token’s validity.
  9. Clock Skew: JWT relies on the system clocks of the server and client to determine the token’s validity. If the clocks are not synchronized or if there is a significant time difference, it can lead to issues with token validation. It is important to account for clock skew when working with JWTs.
  10. Security Vulnerabilities: Like any technology, JWTs are not immune to security vulnerabilities. There have been cases where implementation flaws or weaknesses in the JWT libraries or frameworks have led to security breaches. It is crucial to stay updated with the latest security patches and follow best practices to mitigate these risks.

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